Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Hummingbirds Fighting Over Feeders

The Aztec God of War, Huitzilopochtli, is often depicted as a Hummingbird.

It is natural for hummingbirds to fight over the hummingbird feeder.

We love to feed hummingbirds! We love to see the glistening metallic colors of the male hummingbirds flashing in the sun. We enjoy how close they get to us and how fearless and active they are.

However, many people are concerned about their aggressive behaviors toward other hummingbirds. 

Why does one hummingbird take over the feeder? Why do they have to fight so much? Do hummingbirds hurt themselves when they fight? Is there anything I can do to stop them from fighting? 

These are the questions this article answers.

Photo of Costa's Hummingbird
Costa's Hummingbird. Greg Gillson.

Why do hummingbirds fight over feeders?

Hummingbirds fight over feeders to protect the sweet nectar--an important food source. 

Hummingbirds have high metabolisms and must consume from 3 to 7 calories per day. Many of these calories come from the sugar in nectar.

Flowers are the hummingbirds' natural nectar food source. But flowers don't last long. Hummingbirds are on a constant lookout for new blooming flower patches. When they find a nectar source, they protect it. Feeder wars are a matter of life and death!

Hummingbirds need 1/4-acre territories with insect food, nectar, and water. Males that have the best territories will mate with the most females. The most belligerent and aggressive male is thus the most desirable, from the female's point of view. He will guard the best territory and will sire strong offspring that have a better chance of surviving to adulthood.

No wonder hummingbirds fight over your hummingbird feeder! Hummingbird feeders are a long-lasting and reliable source of nectar that gives the male a better chance of winning the affections of the females.

I've talked as if it is only the male that fights. But this is not true. All hummingbirds have a pecking order, and all will fight one another at the feeder.

There is a time, though, that hummingbirds don't fight at the feeder. It is at dusk. Often several hummingbirds will feed at the feeder relatively peacefully, as they get the last drink of nectar before total darkness.

Photo of Broad-billed Hummingbird at feeder
Broad-billed Hummingbird. Greg Gillson.

How do you stop hummingbirds from fighting over feeders?

The one way to stop hummingbirds from fighting over your hummingbird feeder is to hang several hummingbird feeders. The more, the better.

While the bully hummingbird is off chasing one hummingbird, others can sneak in for a drink. Of course, when the most dominant hummingbird is away, the second-most dominant hummingbird is the new boss. So, fighting continues. 

The more hummingbird feeders there are, the less successful fighting. Why? Because if the dominant bird is always chasing others away, he drinks less nectar. A point comes when it is more advantageous to drink and share in peace than it is to fight.

My small 10-ounce feeder will supply the daily calorie needs of about 50 hummingbirds. Or 10 hummingbirds for 5 days before it needs refilled. And that's only if they don't get any nectar from other sources. Thus, it is often better to have several small hummingbird feeders partially filled than fill up one large feeder. 

The goal here is to attract more hummingbirds at one time so one bird doesn't drive off all the others. You get rid of the bully hummingbird by giving him too much competition.

Several hummingbird feeders placed rather closely together seems to work best for stopping hummingbirds from fighting. However, if you are unable to attract large numbers of hummingbirds, then having a lone second hummingbird feeder out-of-sight of the first feeder works, too.

How many hummingbird feeders do you need? I've seen 5 or 6 feeders work well, with 3 grouped together and others spaced out around the yard. Of course, this takes a lot of dedication on your part to keep them all filled and cleaned!

Photo of Anna's Hummingbird on branch
Anna's Hummingbird. Greg Gillson.

How do hummingbirds fight over feeders?

The dominant male usually sits on an elevated perch where he can keep an eye on the hummingbird feeder.

When another hummingbird appears at the feeder, male or female, the dominant bird comes flying in with a loud angry wing buzz and chattering vocal calls. This is often enough to make submissive birds flee without anyone getting hurt. The dominant bird chases the other bird, often quite far away!

If the interloper stands his ground, though, the fighting becomes more intense. They may hit, bite, stab, or claw. They may even knock each other to the ground! Usually, one bird surrenders and flies off defeated.

Rarely, evenly matched hummingbirds may be physically injured or die in these fights. But this is highly unusual. You don't get the territory and win the female if you're dead.

Of course, even female hummingbirds fight at the feeder. But their fights with each other aren't usually as much of a battle as two males fighting. They usually don't get hurt. Females quickly give way to the males.

Photo of Rufous Hummingbird at feeder
Rufous Hummingbird. Greg Gillson.

What hummingbird fights the most?

In the United States and Canada, the Rufous Hummingbird is the most belligerent and most protective of the hummingbird feeder. They take on all comers.

In the West, Anna's Hummingbirds are resident hummingbirds. So they are at the feeders all year. And they're fairly large. Nevertheless, when the smaller Rufous Hummingbirds arrive in spring, they quickly drive off the Anna's.

Rufous Hummingbirds are fighters!

Looking for a hummingbird feeder? I have personally been enjoying the easy-to-clean More Birds brand hummingbird feeder. There are several sizes. I like the smaller Ruby model (Amazon affiliate link). Thank you for supporting this website with your purchases!

More articles on hummingbirds:

Do you hang hummingbird feeders in sun or shade?

When do you put up hummingbird feeders? When do you take them down?

Why aren't hummingbirds coming to your feeder?

25 Tips on where to hang your hummingbird feeder

Are hummingbird feeders bad for hummingbirds?

Saturday, June 4, 2022

What bird do you hear? Free Bird Sound ID app tells you!

The free Merlin Bird ID app accurately identifies bird songs and calls.

Using this app in the field is like being taught by a birdsong expert!

This free app can identify birds in your yard in several ways: by seeing with photos, hearing with recordings, and reading the digital field guide.

This article tells you how to use Merlin Bird Sound ID to get the best results, regardless of your skill level in identifying bird sounds. Even if you don't know anything about birds or their identification!

What bird sounds like a...?

"I heard this bird...," a non-birding friend will tell me. But often, when pressed, they can't tell me exactly what sound their mystery bird made. Most people haven't learned how to describe bird calls and songs. 

I do my best, but often I can't figure out what bird they heard. I assume it's one of the common birds in the area.

Ten-thousand bird species in the world. All with unique calls. Half with multiple complex learned songs with local dialects. Some mimic other birds or mechanical noises they hear around humans. Learning bird songs and calls is a skill only few birders become good at. Few are the people who can identify more than 200 bird species by call.

Many people try to get Google or Siri to identify a bird they heard. Thus, they ask, What bird sounds like a... Creaking door? Drop of water? Flute? Grasshopper? Horn? Jackhammer? Kitten? Laser gun? Monkey? Phone ringing? Rattlesnake? Screaming woman? Train whistle? Wolf whistle? Xylophone? Zipper?

Until now, I was rarely able to help people identify a bird they heard. But I can now! The free Merlin Bird ID app now identifies bird sounds! It is available for iOS and Android, so works on your smart phone.

Point your phone at the bird sound and press record. The identification is made instantly!

Photo of singing Chestnut-backed Chickadee
Chestnut-backed Chickadee. Greg Gillson.

Merlin Bird ID app

The Merlin Bird ID app helps you identify birds you describe, photograph, or audio record. You can use your smartphone to take a photo or record sounds for the app to analyze in the field. Or you can use the app to listen to recordings or photographs on other devices.

Merlin is provided free by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Here is the Merlin app official page.

There are 4 choices in the menu:

Explore Birds is the field guide section, with description and photos, range map, abundance bar chart based on your location, and bird sounds you can listen to.

Bird ID is a menu-driven helper that asks you where you saw the bird, when, how big it was, main colors, and behavior. It then gives you a photo list of likely birds to choose from.

Photo ID identifies photos. It allows you to take photos in the field with your phone. It does better at identifying larger images of single birds, such as from the back of your dedicated camera or on your computer screen.

Sound ID is the newest, most exciting, and perhaps most useful, part of the app. The rest of this post is devoted to this one aspect.

Merlin Bird Sound ID

Install the free Merlin Bird ID app from the App Store or Google Play for your device. Download the Bird Packs with the birds of your local region. It works throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe. More areas are being developed.

It is super simple to use!

Select Sound ID from the menu. Point the microphone of your phone at the bird and hold still and be quiet. Press record.

A spectrogram scrolls across the top of the screen. As the app identifies birds it hears, they are added to the list under the spectrogram. 

Stop recording and it saves it in My Sound Recordings. You can immediately play it back. As the spectrogram scrolls past the red line, it plays at that point. Stop, back up, go forward, or play only a selected portion.

Here, let me show you. Below is an actual screen capture from my phone. The recording was made June 1st, 2022, at 9:30 am. I was at a wooded pond in western Washington State. The recording lasts 52 seconds.

Screenshot of Merlin Sound ID at work

Screenshot of Merlin Bird Sound ID app at work.

Above: The spectrogram shows that a Common Yellowthroat sings, then a Yellow Warbler. But in the background are faint singing Warbling Vireos, Red-winged Blackbirds, and American Robins! This app accurately identifies them all singing at once!

I recently got a new modern phone with more memory (iPhone 12 with 64 GB). The first app I loaded onto my phone was Merlin Bird ID. The app size is 66 MB. The data size with 2 Bird Packs and 20 recordings of about a minute each in My Sound Recordings is 1.3 GB... and growing. 

To keep my phone's memory storage from being overwhelmed, I send recordings I want to keep to my laptop. I delete recordings on my phone when I am finished.

How accurate is Merlin Sound ID app?

I find the Merlin Sound ID app to be about 90% accurate. That is awful for a self-driving car, but acceptable for identifying bird sounds.

Some birders complain about this level of accuracy. Frankly, I'm amazed the technology can do it at all. It's not accurate all of the time, but neither am I. You need to verify what it tells you. Don't report a rare bird based only on what Merlin identifies. View the bird and take notes or photos. Send the spectrograph as proof of the birdsong.

The app does better at identifying louder bird sounds. It works better in more quiet areas with less ambient noise (planes, rushing water, wind, talking companions, traffic). 

That said, it often identifies birds before I can hear them. It can pick out single birds to identify in the cacophony of bird noises of the dawn chorus.

It does better at identifying faint high-pitched warblers, creepers, flycatchers, bushtits, waxwings, kinglets, chickadees than it does low pitched single notes such as distant crows, ravens, robins, and geese. Or, perhaps I should say, I don't do as well as it does with high-pitched notes. My ears are now more than 60 years old. I'm happy I can still hear those birds when they are close.

Many times, the app identifies a bird I didn't hear. Is it a misidentification? I play the recording back and--sure enough--I can detect it in the recording! Or, I walk on 50 feet and now I can hear it clearly. Many times. I tend to trust it and search for the bird if I didn't hear it at first.

Sometimes it identifies a wrong species when multiple birds are singing at once. It once identified my stomach growling as a Rock Pigeon! But I couldn't fool it with any of my bird imitations that bring real birds to respond to me.

And, of course, it doesn't identify the chirps of squirrels or trills of toads or insects that some people may think are bird calls. It just lets these unidentified sounds go by without comment. So, also, any bird calls not in the currently loaded Bird Pack. It didn't identify a loud repeated "kik-kik" call of Virginia Rail, even though I suspect it would recognize a repeated series of kik calls.

Sometimes, also, it seems slow to identify certain birds or distant birds. But once it does, it is quick to re-identify it when it hears it again on the same recording. It highlights the bird's name again each time it hears it. So you can listen to the birds and watch the app as you both identify the birds together!

Use cases: How to get the most out of Merlin Sound ID

Who is this app for? I really like the Merlin Bird Sound ID app for 3 different use cases, from absolute beginner to birdsong identification expert.

In each case this app identifies bird calls and songs for you. But don't take the results as absolute, as discussed above. It's not 100% accurate. But it is very helpful.

See the 5 tips I have for you below.

Use Case 1: The curious and feeder bird watcher: Identify birds making noise in your yard

For the true beginner, Merlin Bird Sound ID can help identify birds heard at your feeder. Sit near your feeder and turn on the recorder. You'll soon have a list of birds to look up in your field guide or in the app itself.

If you can get to within 20 feet of your feeder, you can use Photo ID and the camera in your cell phone. Zoom in and isolate a single bird on the app. It's not as accurate as I'd like with small photos. But take several shots and see if your bird shows up.

However, the Bird Sound ID works very well on identifying feeder birds based even on the squawks and calls the birds make. Plus, any birds calling or singing in the nearby area will be identified.

What's that bird calling non-stop early in the morning? Press record and you'll know!

Is it a Purple Finch or a House Finch? The app will identify their calls. 

What are those birds singing hidden in the treetops? Soon you will know!

Tip 1: I like sitting in the yard and just turning on the app and seeing just what birds the app can hear. Now, can you verify them with a sighting?

You will be amazed just how many different kinds of birds are in your yard!

Use Case 2: The learning birder: Help to learn bird calls and songs

Once you've been bitten by the bird watching bug, you'll be heading out in the field to find birds away from home. 

You will meet other birders. And you may be amazed and possibly discouraged by some birders that are really good at identifying bird calls.

In the woods I may actually only see 3 or 4 species of the 40 or more bird species I may hear in an hour. But I grew up birding in the forests of Oregon. There I chased down all the bird sounds I heard. When I heard a bird call I didn't recognize, I stayed with it until I found, saw, and identified the bird.

You can do the same, only much more quickly than I did. I birded and learned all by myself. You've got a patient birdsong teacher with you on your phone!

The app is very good at identifying warbler songs and Empid calls. These are very tough ID challenges.

Press record. Watch the app identify heard birds. Look at the spectrogram. You'll soon learn what each bird's song looks like as frequency over time. It has a definite shape. Higher on the graph is higher pitch. Darker is louder. You'll see whistles and trills. You'll see rough notes and noise. You'll learn to hear and see the sliding rising and falling notes.

Record bird song for a minute or two. Look for any birds the app says it hears but you have not identified yet. Move on a hundred feet and try it again. Realize it isn't always 100% accurate, but if it keeps identifying a bird you don't see, it really could be present!

Tip 2: When you play back a recording, I believe it passes through a high-pass filter. It is actually easier to hear the birds by listening to the playback, as the tire road noise and aircraft noises are attenuated. Playback is through the ear speaker, not the speakerphone.

Tip 3: Keep recordings of bird songs you're trying to learn. Listen to them again. Keep any recordings of unusual birds to add to eBird or email to other birders as proof documentation. Delete most recordings so as to not use up your phone memory storage.

Merlin Bird Sound ID will help you more quickly learn to identify birds you hear! It will help you find birds you would have otherwise missed. Learning birdsong will help you see more birds!

Use Case 3: The birdsong expert: Identify and document even more birds!

By now you've got the idea. Just hit record and a list of birds that the app hears will come up.

Why? If you can already identify the common birds you hear, and you chase down anything you don't recognize, why do you need to use Merlin Bird Song ID?

Because soon your hearing will deteriorate. It takes a long time to become expert at identifying birds by ear. While you were becoming an expert, you were also becoming older.

Using Bird Song ID, I found out that I was detecting perhaps only a third of the waxwings that were actually present in the trees above me. And I was missing most of the sounds of Golden-crowned Kinglets, Brown Creepers, Bushtits, and Chestnut-backed Chickadees. Unless they were within 15 feet they are too faint for me to hear anymore.

Did I just hear a Yellow Warbler? Was that a Townsend's Warbler or a Hermit Warbler? And how did I miss that snipe calling constantly? Play back the recordings and you'll be surprised what you missed. Even listening intently, your brain filters out some sounds. 

Keep your bird sound identification skills sharply honed by competing with the app. Can you identify all the birds the app did? What can you hear that the app missed? A distant raven? The "weep" of a Swainson's Thrush? The opening notes of a Song Sparrow song that wasn't finished?

Is that rare bird the app came up with really a misidentification? Are you sure?

Tip 4: On the playback, if you click on the identified bird photo, you'll be taken to the first identification of each species on the recording. Scroll back 2 seconds and then play to listen. Sometimes the app makes a mistake. Other times you may be surprised with a record of a rare bird!

The cell phone is no substitute for dedicated bird recording equipment, such as parabolic microphones. But this app is adequate to document a rare heard-only bird or provide additional proof of a rare bird seen with a recording of its call. The audio files are generally noisy, so if you like recording bird songs, the cell phone is not the equipment of choice.

Tip 5: Learn to use an audio editing tool. I have found that the free Ocenaudio works well. Here is an eBird support page dedicated to preparing your audio file to upload to eBird, in the same way as you can upload photos. 

Need help choosing your first pair of bird watching binoculars?

I have written several articles on choosing binoculars. Let me save you the trouble of reading them all. I really love my Celestron 8x42 Nature DX ED (purchase with this Amazon affiliate link that supports this blog). They sell for well under $200. You won't have buyer's remorse. 

Bird song picture: Sonagram, Sonogram or Spectrogram?

What is that graph called of frequency over time that is a picture of a bird's song?

Sonagram is the term and spelling used in The Singing Life of Birds by Donald Kroodsma. But the Sibley and National Geographic field guides to birds both use the spelling sonogram. And Nathan Pieplow of the Earbirding website, uses spectrogram, which is probably the most accurate word.

Derek, over at Badgerland Birding, recently field tested the Merlin Bird ID app, including the new Sound ID feature. Check out his video here:

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